Members of the Yell County Mounted Patrol participated in auto extrication training on Thursday night, June 25 at their headquarters. The training event began at 7 p.m. The Mounted Patrol conducts the auto extrication training to provide their members, both new recruits and veterans of the rescue team, various skills on various extrication techniques and procedures to allow its members to manage, conduct and practice efficient rescues of entrapped persons involved in a motor vehicles collision. The training included several auto extrication techniques that were performed on a salvaged vehicle using various rescue tools. Auto extrication is the process of removing a vehicle from around a person who has been involved in a motor vehicle collision, when conventional means of exit are impossible or inadvisable. A delicate approach is needed to minimize injury to the victim during the extrication. This operation is usually accomplished by using chocks and bracing for stabilization and hydraulic tools, including the Jaws of Life. Rescue personnel use a number of tools to extricate victims. There are three main types: Hydraulic rescue tools are powered by a hydraulic pump. The pump may be powered by hand, an electric motor or a gasoline engine. There are 4 basic types of hydraulic rescue tools. They are spreaders, shears, combination spreader/shears and extension rams. Pneumatic rescue tools are powered by pressurized air. The pressurized air is sourced from SCUBA cylinders, vehicle mounted cascade systems or vehicle mounted air compressors. Whizzer Saws and Air Chisels are examples of pneumatic-powered tools. Electric rescue tools are powered by electrical power has been used with vehicle extrication tools first through power cords linked to electricity generators and more recently through batteries. These can serve as both a primary set of tools or as a redundant system alongside gasoline-powered hydraulic tools. Reciprocating saws, spreaders, shears, extension rams, and spreader/shears can all be electric powered. The first step in an extrication is to stabilize the vehicle to prevent aggravating the injuries of the entrapped and to protect rescue workers. This is done by using stabilization tools: • Hydraulic and non-hydraulic rescue tools are designed to lift the vehicle so cribbing can be placed. A vehicle must never be supported by only a jack and must be supported by cribbing. One inch of cribbing must be placed for every inch the jack lifts. • Buttress Tension System is used to stabilize a vehicle resting on its side or top. It may consist of a minimum of three 4 x 4 inch posts wedged between the vehicle and the ground, or it may be a system composed of metal rods and straps. The exact placement varies by the condition and weight of the vehicle as well as what the vehicle is resting on. • Wheel chocks are used to stabilize vehicles resting on their wheels. They can support vehicles of a 10 to 15 percent grade. They are commonly constructed of aluminum, hard rubber, wood, or urethane plastic. • Cribbing consists of wood or plastic blocks that are made in a variety of shapes and sizes. • Pneumatic lifting bags are air-pressurized devices that lift objects. They come in three basic types: high-pressure, medium-pressure and low-pressure. They are usually made with a rubber exterior reinforced with steel wire or Kevlar. When deflated they are about one inch thick. Active systems such as airbags make cutting into a vehicle more complicated: when they are not set off during the crash (e.g. in a vehicle struck from the rear or a rollover), extrication operations may set them off. This can cause additional trauma to the victim or to the rescuers. Airbags can remain active anywhere from 5 seconds to 20 minutes after being disconnected from the car's battery. This is one of the reasons rescuers disconnect the vehicle's battery and wait before cutting into a vehicle. Hood hinge struts can pose a great amount of danger to rescuers who are extricating a victim from a car that had any significant heat in the engine compartment. According to the strut manufacturers, these sealed and pressurized struts are designed to operate at temperatures ranging from 40 degrees Fahrenheit to 284 degrees Fahrenheit. During a vehicle fire, especially an engine compartment fire, the two hood hinge struts will be exposed to high heat levels. Since there is no pressure relief "valve" on any of these sealed and pressurized struts, the units can fail violently when overheated. Unfortunately for rescue personnel, this failure can actually "launch" the entire strut or just one part of the unit a significant distance off the vehicle like an unguided missile. It is the launching of the heated strut that in several incidents across the United States, has caused serious injury to rescue personnel. New hybrid technologies also include additional high voltage batteries, or batteries located in unusual places. These can expose occupants and rescuers to shock, acid or fire hazards if not dealt with correctly. Car manufacturers are using ultra high strength steel (UHSS) to achieve the 5-star Government Crash Rating. Vehicles have UHSS areas of the body structure like the A-pillar, B-pillar rockers, side impact beams, and roof beams. This steel is difficult to cut with the standard extrication tools. The Yell County Mounted Patrol is a nonprofit organization that was founded in the 1940s by the Yell County Sheriff and was later expanded by several deputies. The Mounted patrol provided help to people in trouble in rural, mountainous areas, which in those days could only be reached on horseback. Today, the mounted patrol is mounted on ATV’s and boats instead of horses, but they still provide help to those in difficult situations. Members of the Yell County Mounted Patrol are volunteers who desire to serve others in their community during emergency situations when they are needed most. Calls range from vehicle accidents, including entrapment accidents that require extrication, search and rescue operations, lost person searches, rope and high angle rescues, swift water rescues,boating accidents and various types of recoveries. The attached photos and following video were captured during Yell County Mounted Patrol’s auto extrication training session on Thursday night.